Monthly Archives: October, 2018

What is our Soul?

October 19th, 2018 Posted by Uncategorized 0 thoughts on “What is our Soul?”

Many will teach that our soul is our mind, will and emotions. But that is far too limiting a definition.

There is a principle in interpreting the Hebrew testament called the First Use Principle: The first time a word is used in the Hebrew Bible determines its basic meaning derived from the context in which it is used.

So, let’s look at the first time “soul” is used in the Bible: Genesis 2:7 “And the Lord God formed the man (Adam) from the dust of the ground, and blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man (Adam) became a living soul.”

The Hebrew word for soul is Nephesh:

The meaning of the three Hebrew letters for Nephesh are as follows:

Noon — a fish darting through the water, life, new life, action;

Pey — mouth, to speak / command, a word, the beginning;

Shin — shape of one’s two front teeth, consume, devour.

The meaning of Nephesh derived from these Hebrew letters: “The Lord God breathed into Adam’s lifeless body the breath of life, and the word of His mouth permeated Adam’s entire body / consumed his entire body bringing animated life.”

When God formed Adam out of the dust of the ground, that body had all the component parts our bodies have: eyes, ears, nose, mouth, arms, legs, lungs, stomach, brain, etc. But as yet, they were all lifeless components. This body could not see, hear, smell, taste or feel. Nor could it walk, digest food, breathe or speak.

Then the Lord God breathed into Adam’s nostrils and he became a living being — a soul. That is, his soul, which God imparted to him by the breath / command of His mouth, animated his body enabling it to see, hear, smell, walk, breathe, eat and speak. It now became the tent of the tabernacle Paul speaks of in 2 Corinthians 5:1 that Adam, the spirit being God created in His image and likeness in Genesis chapter 1:26-27, could now live in.

Our soul animates our body’s brain producing a mind that is capable of storing memory. It also animates our body’s nervous system which includes our brain yielding the capacity for emotions. From Samuel’s response to Saul in I Samuel 28:14-19, it is clear that Samuel as a spirit being also possessed a mind, will and emotions.

But what about a separate will for our soul? Paul might be indicating in Romans 7:14-24 that our flesh has a separate will we are powerless to disobey. If that were so, however, we would not be accountable for our own choices.

There is another explanation. Our nervous system hardwires our body and soul to seek pleasure and avoid pain. Initially, the soul of an infant will cry or express some other signs of displeasure when it encounters pain or discomfort. This propensity can be at odds with virtually any form of discipline.

Such discipline recognizes that more long-term goals reaping larger pleasurable benefits must be weighted against short-term pain or discomfort. Any athlete will attest to this analysis.

So, our soul will resist discipline until it experiences the benefits of discipline. This does not mean our soul has a will of its own. It just means it has a natural tendency to focus on more immediate gratification — what it experiences through our senses, bodily appetites and memories.

That is why the knowledge of good and evil is so crippling. Instead of just taking this input at face value, our knowledge of good and evil is such a pervasive, instinctual mental activity that our spirit being can easily choose our soul’s perception of reality. This decision will seems right to us in the moment until discipline gives our soul a larger perspective.

2 Corinthians 5:7 says “We walk by faith and not by what we perceive.” The Lord is the only One Who can see the outcome of our current perception of reality. So, Jesus says “If anyone would come after me, let him deny himself” — refrain from choosing the way that seems right in the moment; “take up his cross daily” — be willing to face the pain or displeasure we perceive by taking the disciplined path the Lord asks us to take; “and follow me” — as He leads us.

Jesus is our model:

Matthew 26:39 “My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from me; nevertheless, not as I will, but as you will.”

Hebrews 12:1-2 “Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us also lay aside every weight, and sin which clings so closely, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, looking to Jesus, the founder and perfecter of our faith, who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame,..”

Our Father’s goal is to bring us to complete salvation, spirit, soul and body. By denying our self, taking up our cross and following Jesus, our soul and body will also be transformed into Christ’s image from one degree of glory to another.                     (2 Corinthians 3:18)

A Strong Biblical Foundation For the Healing Ministry

October 8th, 2018 Posted by Uncategorized 0 thoughts on “A Strong Biblical Foundation For the Healing Ministry”

For most of my Christian life, I have struggled trying to discern when it was God’s will to heal a particular person. As a pastor, I have often prayed for healing without any firm assurance that the disease or illness would be eradicated. When nothing happened, I have chalked it up either to my lack of faith, my lack of discernment or perhaps to a resignation that the disease was their “thorn in the flesh.”

My wife and I recently returned from a mission trip to Nicaragua where we witnessed some amazing examples of the Lord’s compassion and power. Coming from a strong reformed background, I was delighted to witness God’s healing ministry through our hands. But it also heightened my conviction to seek an unambiguous scriptural foundation for healing ministries. To my surprise, I found an answer in the Gospel that has been there all along. Permit me to share this discovery with you, especially if you have been wrestling with this issue yourself.

Matthew 8:16, 17 says in the ESV:

“That evening they brought to him many who were oppressed by demons, and he cast out the spirits with a word and healed all who were sick. This was to fulfill what was spoken by the prophet Isaiah: ‘He took our illnesses and bore our diseases.’”

In addition to saying that Jesus healed all who were sick, Matthew declared that this action was to fulfill what was spoken by the prophet Isaiah: “He took our illnesses and bore our diseases.” In other words, this event was not just a manifestation of Christ’s compassion and power. It was done to fulfill the scripture contained in Isaiah 53:3-10, a passage that highlights what Jesus accomplished on the cross.

However, in our English translations of this text, there is only an oblique reference to healing:

“He was despised and rejected by men, a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief; … Surely he has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows; yet we esteemed him stricken, smitten by God, and afflicted; But he was pierced for our transgressions; he was crushed for our iniquities; upon him was the chastisement that brought us peace, and with his wounds we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned – every one – to his own way; and the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all . . . Yet it was the will of the Lord to crush him; he has put him to grief” ESV.

This passage clearly declares that Jesus was pierced for our transgressions and crushed for our iniquities — that the Lord laid on him the iniquity of us all. He paid the price for our transgressions on the cross. But the two phrases “a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief;” and, “surely he has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows” do not paint an image of one who took our illnesses and bore our diseases as Matthew seems to indicate. Instead, it paints a picture of mental anguish rather than physical pain and suffering brought on by disease. In that light, the phrase, “with his wounds we are healed” could mean deliverance from the mental turmoil brought on by our transgressions and iniquities.

So, I looked up this same passage in the Holy Scriptures to the Masoretic Text published by the Jewish Society of America — fifth printing 1969; a set I purchased while in seminary:

“He was despised, and forsaken of men, a man of pains, and acquainted with disease, . . . Surely our diseases he did bear, and our pains he carried; Whereas we did esteem him stricken, smitten by God and afflicted. But he was wounded because of our transgressions, he was crushed because of our iniquities: The chastisement of our welfare was upon him, and with his stripes we were healed. All we like sheep have gone astray, we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath made to light on him the iniquity of us all. . . . Yet it pleased the Lord to crush him by disease;”

This translation also underscores the burden Christ took upon Himself for our transgressions and iniquities. But the words “sorrows” and “grief” have been replaced by “pains” and “disease.” Moreover, this translation reflects to a far greater degree the text found in Matthew 8:16 and 17 as well as Matthew’s intent for quoting it.

I decided to look more closely at the meaning of the original texts. Here are the pertinent Greek word definitions as found in the Greek-English Lexicon on the New Testament translated and edited by W.F. Arndt and F.W. Gingrich:

Heal — Care for, wait upon, treat medically, restore, heal

Sick — ill, sick (in the physical sense)

Fulfill — Make full, fill, complete, reach its end, bring something to completion, finish, fulfill

Took — Take in the hand, take hold of, grasp, take away, remove

Illness — Bodily weakness, sickness, disease

Bore — Carry, bear, endure

Disease — Disease, illness

So, Matthew was clearly referring to physical ailments, not just mental disabilities.

Here are the Hebrew word definitions as found in the Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament edited by Francis Brown, S.R. Driver and Charles A. Briggs and the Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible by Jeff A. Benner:

(Where the word choices of the two translations differ, I have included both translations on the left side of the Hebrew word.)

Sorrows / pains  כאב — Mental and physical pain

Acquainted  ידע — To know, to have an intimate relationship with another

person, idea or experience. Adam KNEW Eve his wife . . .

Grief / disease  חלי  — Wound of violence, sickness, disease, illness, incurable disease, grief

Surely  אכנ — Surely, with a strong assertive force

Borne נשא / נסא — To bear, carry, be responsible for, to incur

Carried  סבל — Carry, bear a burden / a heavy load

Iniquity  עינ  — Iniquity, guilt, the result of twisted work/actions/effort. In ancient

Hebrew, there was a character that looked a lot like an (ע ayin) and was pronounced “ghah” meaning twisted. In later Hebrew, this letter was replaced by ayin but the meaning carried forward in the words that contained the original ghah.

Transgression  פשע — Transgression, revolt, a spreading apart.

Wounds / stripes  חבנרה — Striped wounds/bruises made by ropes/lashes

Healed  רפא — Healed of a disease or affliction, a word often related to physical ailments, literally “man open,” open wound, sickness, illness

Will (of the Lord) / pleased (the Lord)  חפצ — To delight in, have pleasure in, to

desire something out of pleasure or necessity

Crush  דכא — To crush, break in pieces, shatter

Here are the Hebrew words in the initial segment of Isaiah 53:10:

(Hebrew reads from right to left.)

ויהוה            חפצ                    דכאו                 החלי

to make sick   to crush him      pleased    But God

This examination of the meaning of the Hebrew words in Isaiah 53:3-10 leaves no doubt that the salvation secured by Jesus Christ on the cross covers not only our iniquities and transgressions but our pains, illnesses and sicknesses as well. Further, it was physical healing that Matthew emphasized in verses 8:16 and 17.

Our reformed tradition proclaims our conviction that everyone who is drawn by the Holy Spirit will receive forgiveness for their transgressions and iniquities by grace through faith in Jesus Christ. But the finished work on the cross prophesied by Isaiah and depicted in Mathew also extends to salvation from physical ailments.

The account of the four men who lowered their paralyzed friend through the roof to Jesus highlights the role signs and miracles play in the Gospel. When the man was placed before Him, Jesus saw their faith and said to the paralytic, “Son, your sins are forgiven.” His statement was immediately challenged as blasphemous. But Jesus replied, “Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, ‘Your sins are forgiven,’ or to say, ‘Rise, take up your bed and walk’? “But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins” – he said to the paralytic – “I say to you, rise, pick up your bed, and go home.” And he rose and immediately picked up his bed and went out before them all.

Had Jesus not healed the paralytic, His critics could have argued that according to their theology, only God could forgive sins. But the healing authenticated His claim to have the authority to forgive sins.

Isaiah said it delighted / pleased the Father to place on His Son all our pains, illnesses and diseases. Why? So that the Father could bear witness to His Son’s authority to forgive our iniquities and transgressions through the signs and miracles that followed (Mark 16:20; Acts 4:29-31, 14:3; Hebrews 2:4).

Life in all its fullness in the Kingdom of Heaven has been made possible and freely available through Christ’s sacrifice at Calvary. I can only find one requirement: “No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him” John 6:44. Here are the episodes in Matthew where everyone who came to Jesus was healed (4:23, 24; 8;16; 9:35; 12:15; 14:35, 36.)

There is no indication that all of these people had to be true believers before they could be recipients of the Lord’s compassion and grace. The Father had brought these people to His Son and manifested through Him what life was like in the Kingdom. Jesus said, “Do not think that I have come to bring peace to the earth. I have not come to bring peace, but a sword.” The signs and miracles drew many to Jesus through the power of the Holy Spirit. But His message divided those who heard Him into two camps: those who embraced His message and those who rejected it.

Christ dwells in us. We know that our Father is not willing that any should perish, and that He still brings people to His Son in us to hear the Gospel. Further, we can know that He gives us both the will and the ability to accomplish His good pleasure (Philippians 2:13) through the power of the Holy Spirit. Compassion is what drove Jesus to preach the Gospel of the Kingdom and to minister to all who came to Him. In the same way, His compassion in us signals His desire to manifest His Father’s presence. And we can rest in the knowledge, based on Isaiah 53:3-10 and Matthew 8:16 and 17, that Jesus not only bore all of our iniquities and transgressions on the cross but also all of our pains, sicknesses and diseases so His Father can offer more abundant life to us through His Son.

Some, when they hear that they must deny their self, take up their own cross and follow Christ, will turn away even after receiving a taste of the Kingdom. But others, will count it all joy to receive the Pearl of Great Price.

Your friend in His service, Bill Combs

March 3, 2018

Another Look at the Great Commission

October 8th, 2018 Posted by Uncategorized 0 thoughts on “Another Look at the Great Commission”

Matthew 28:18 – 20 has been a strong driving force for missions and evangelism for centuries. During the vast majority of that time, the King James version has been at the forefront of that mandate. But how closely does this translation reflect the underlying original Greek language?

Let’s review the King James quote:

“Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you, and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.”

The phrase, “Go ye” has been heralded as a command by Jesus to His disciples to go to all the nations. However, the Greek word, πορευϑεντες is a participle, not a command. It can be translated as “Going / As you go / In your going” and means, “Wherever you go – Wherever you are led to go, etc.”

Unfortunately, translating this participle as a command has divided the church into two groups: Those who GO, and those who support those who GO. Moreover, those who go are few and are often elevated to a position of being “called” while those who only support those who go, often see themselves as not being called – a sad commentary since every Christian is called to disciple “wherever they go.” As such, the Body of Christ has lost the vast majority of called-ones mandated by Christ to disciple wherever they are.

This also relegates them to giving money and material to others in the mission field, insulating them from the personal relationships (local victories and needs) experienced by their missionaries and defining their role largely in a material sense.

The phrase, “and teach” dramatically diminishes the meaning of the Greek word μαϑητευσατε which means “disciple.” Moreover, this is the command in this sentence, not “go ye.” To put it in King James English, it could have been translated, “disciple ye.”

There is a huge difference between “teach” and “disciple.” Teaching might be called schooling or what you learn in a structured / classroom environment where an instructor typically instructs a class of students. At various times, the students are often tested to make sure they have learned the contents of the teaching.

As a result, “teach all nations” has led to the founding of Bible schools, seminaries, colleges and universities all over the world with the conviction that “teaching” was the objective. Jesus modeled what it was like to live in the Kingdom of God. One of my Hebrew professors in seminary shared with me the difference between the mindset of a Greek and a Hebrew. He said a Greek will ask you what you believe while a Hebrew will follow you around for a week to see how your life expresses your beliefs.

In a teaching environment, a person can instruct the students on their intellectual beliefs even if their lives do not reflect those convictions. However, in a discipling environment, the students are drawn to the manifest difference in the conduct of their mentor’s relationship with others.  They see that their mentor’s life actually expresses what he/she believes and they want to follow their mentor’s example because they also want to live that way. Teaching passes on a head knowledge of the subject while discipleship passes on a way of life and in the case of Christian discipleship, it models the importance of a personal relationship with the mentor and with Jesus Christ.

There is another hidden issue with “teaching.” It assumes that since the Biblical instructions are “foolishness to unbelievers,” those being taught in all the nations should already be Christians. Therefore, a strong emphasis must be placed on evangelism prior to teaching. Unfortunately, since teaching is emphasized as the path for understanding how to live a Christian life, it can foster an intellectual association with the church rather than a personal relationship with Jesus Christ.

Evangelism is important. But being born again is only the entry into the Kingdom of God. If we rely solely on teaching to reveal how to live in the Kingdom, we often deny our converts a person / mentor they can emulate and limit them to learning about life in the Kingdom. Discipleship enables both a born-again and a mentoring experience.

One final note: From a teaching standpoint, the New Testament has often been held to be more important than the Old Testament since the latter can be portrayed as a shadow or foretaste of the light of the Gospel. But as Paul and Jesus point out, the Hebrew scriptures and the covenant relationships they convey are essential to understanding the full depth of the Gospel.

Let’s move on to the word “nations.”  The Greek word is εϑνη which should more accurately be translated as “Gentile nations.” Jesus knew the Gospel would quickly spread throughout the inhabited world. These precious people He had died for would begin their spiritual journey as pagans with little if any understanding of the scriptures and the covenant relationship the Hebrew God had with His people – the λαος.

Since there is no adjective clarifying who the nations are, Christians have also been sending missionaries to Jews and now to Israel attempting to convert them to Christianity instead of calling them to accept Jesus as their Messiah.

Let’s continue to discover the breadth of discipleship Jesus commanded for us: “baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:”

The church has largely reduced this segment to a ritualistic pronouncement made over a person at the time of their baptism which completely sidesteps the original intent.

There is one small word in this clause that seems innocuous enough. But it can help us understand what Jesus meant: “in” could more accurately be translated as “into” since its underlying word is εις not εν. As such, the translation could better read, “baptizing them into the name . . .” To better understand this subtle distinction, consider the rest of this clause: “into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:”

Name means character and could be translated as “into the character of the Father, . . .” Baptize literally means to immerse. So, Jesus is saying: “immerse Gentile converts into the character of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost?”

John the Baptist told his hearers, “I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance: but he that cometh after me . . . he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire.” This baptism is much more than being given the ability to speak in tongues or to prophesy. John is saying that Jesus had the authority to immerse believers into the character of the Holy Ghost giving them an ever increasing, intimate knowledge of His Person.

Gentile converts would have very little experiential knowledge of the Father. So, Jesus commanded His Jewish disciples to disciple their Gentile converts, immersing them into the character of the Father – to model their own experiential relationship with the Father through Jesus Christ.

Finally, Jesus modeled His role in the salvation history as Jesus/Joshua the Messiah. In order to immerse converts into the character of the Son, we need to focus on Jesus as the Jewish Messiah.

Let’s continue: “Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you.” This is the second time the word “teaching” is used in the King James version. But in fact, it is only the first time in the original – and instead of becoming part of the teaching curriculum, it is meant to be the content to be modeled in the mentor’s life so that converts will see how to actually OBSERVE all things, not just intellectually learn all things.

“and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world.” The actual Greek text is ”… εως της συντελειας του αιωνος — … until the completion of the age.

“…the end of the world” implies the end of the known creation heralded by Revelation, chapter 20:1. However, until the completion of the age points to a potentially different time. Jesus is focusing on Gentile nations. In Luke 21:24 Jesus said Jerusalem would be trodden down by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles is fulfilled. Therefore, the translation “end of the world” is more of an interpretation than a translation.

So, let’s revisit the great commission that more closely reflects the original Greek language:

“Wherever you go (among the Gentiles), disciple the Gentile nations, immersing them into the character of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Teach them through your discipleship to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you all the days until the completion of the age.”

What an amazing year!!!

October 8th, 2018 Posted by Uncategorized 0 thoughts on “What an amazing year!!!”

Some of you have read my extended bio on this website but have not yet gone over to my facebook page to catch up on what I have been doing this past year. It has truly been a momentous time in my life. Not only has the Lord opened doors for ministry around the world, I have also married a most amazing woman: Judy Madden. It was an arranged marriage — totally arranged by the Lord. Both of us had strong ministries stretching out before us. Both of us were widowed and neither of us was looking for another relationship, convinced the Lord wanted us to devote ourselves completely to Him.

We met in September and the third time I talked with her in person I proposed to her. We met at a worship service where she asked me to help promote her book. We had lunch at a fast food restaurant with her girl friend. It soon became apparent that her walk with the Lord was special. The Lord talked with her constantly, guiding her in everything she did. She had eyes to see and ears to hear. She also had a powerful ministry through the John Wayne trail across Washington state, and a five acre ranch in Duval devoted to a ministry called Shiloh Prayer And Fasting.

A week after we met, she asked me to come to her ranch. The night before I went over, the Lord woke me with her face before me and feelings for her as well. I thought it was surely our adversary trying to divert my focus away from the Lord and I spent the next three hours arguing and even shouting that I wanted nothing to do with another relationship and pleading for sleep. But the more I fought, the more insistent He became and the more peace I had that this leading was from Him.

The next morning, I drove to Duval and met Judy and her horse. Inside her modest home, she showed me a picture her grandmother had painted of an elk. As I looked down from the picture, I noticed a copy of my picture from Facebook and started to weep hardly knowing why. We went outside to tour her farm and as we passed through the kitchen, I saw another one of my pictures on her refrigerator.

Back in the house, she fixed some coffee and scones and we sat down at her table to talk. Before I began asking her how I could help with her book, I asked why my pictures were all around her house. She looked at me, almost afraid to say anything, and said in a low voice, “Because I love you.” She said she had also been wrestling with the Lord because she did not want another relationship — and was taking a chance telling me this because she knew I had not been interested in a relationship either.

I knew how hard it was for her to share and agreed the Lord was bringing us together. Later that night, I asked the Lord why He had not healed Miriam so she could have continued to be my wife. He said if He had allowed her to go through the fire that is ahead for me, she would have come apart and would have pulled me down as well.

Then He said I had a choice. There would be no way I could face the demands of the ministry He had laid out for me without another warrior at my side who could stand with me in the days ahead. I could either gladly accept His choice for me or He would not allow me to continue to run the race He had for me. We carried on an email conversation for the next two weeks while she was busy with a ministry commitment in eastern Washington.

I invited her to my home on Friday and proposed to her that day. I felt like I had known her for years, not just weeks. I know all this sounds like puppy love. But she was 78 and I was 72 and we had “been there, done that” so to speak. We are mature enough in the Lord to know when to submit to His guidance even when He is pouring months of normal adjustments into days and weeks.

When I shared our engagement with my pastor at the Seattle University Presbyterian Church the next Sunday, he said, “Why don’t we have the wedding during a Sunday morning worship service in January?” I could hardly believe his words because that was the same offer the pastor made at the First Presbyterian Church in Bellingham when Miriam and I were married.

We feel so blessed and humbled that the Lord has brought us together for perhaps the last adventure of our race. And we rejoice in what lies ahead in our relationship.  :o) Bill and Judy

Was Adam a Wuss? — Update

October 7th, 2018 Posted by Uncategorized 0 thoughts on “Was Adam a Wuss? — Update”

More insight into Genesis 3:6:

“…and she also gave some to her husband who was with her and he ate.” ESV

I was reading this text in the New Israel Bible – a brand new Hebrew translation from some of the best Hebrew scholars in Israel:

“She also gave some to her husband, and he ate.”

Notice that the phrase “who was with her” is missing from this Hebrew translation.

This omission prompted me to look up the definition of the Hebrew word עמה (ayin, mem, hey) translated as “with her” by the ESV and several other translations. According to Brown, Driver and Briggs, it means “united, associated, family, family connection.”

It does not restrict the meaning to “being at one’s side.” This broader definition makes much more sense.

Genesis 3:3 indicates that Adam’s wife thought they were not only to refrain from eating the fruit, they were also forbidden from touching it. It seems hard to believe that the Lord would tell Adam one command in scripture but later give his wife a more restrictive, undocumented warning after He created her.

It seems more plausible that Adam, in an attempt to keep his wife from inadvertently picking the fruit by accident, may well have added this codicil to the original command. In any event, while he was supposedly standing right beside her, why would he let her not only touch the fruit but eat it as well? And how could he accuse her of being his undoing (3:12) when he had supposedly been standing right there while she took, ate and gave it to him — all without any adverse reaction from him.

And why didn’t she reply to his accusation by reminding him that he was right there too. Moreover, why didn’t the Lord point out when Adam implicated Him as well (3.12) that he had been right next to his wife when she ate the fruit and was therefore equally responsible?

The new Hebrew translation makes much more sense to leave this phrase out since it could have simply meant that there was a family connection between Adam and his wife and did not imply that he was standing right next to her.

All profits received from the sale of books published will be used by the William Combs Foundation for charitable purposes.